Verena Behringer, Anna Preis, Doris F. Wu, Caherine Crockford, Fabian H. Leendertz, Roman M. Wittig, Tobias Deschner (2020). Urinary Cortisol Increases During a Respiratory Outbreak in Wild Chimpanzees. Frontiers in Veterinary Science.
Katja Rudolph, Claudia Fichtel, Michael Heistermann, Peter M. Kappeler (2020). Dynamics and determinants of glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in wild Verreaux's sifakas. Hormones and Behavior, Volume 124, 104760.
Livia V. Patrono, Kamilla Pléh, Liran Samuni, Markus Ulrich, Caroline Röthemeier, Andreas Sachse, Silvia  Muschter, Andreas Nitsche, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Christophe Boesch, Roman M. Wittig, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H. Leendertz (2020). Monkeypox virus emergence in wild chimpanzees reveals distinct clinical outcomes and viral diversity. Nature Microbiology, 1-11.
James P. Highman, Christiane Stahl-Henning, Michael Heistermann (2020). Urinary suPAR: a non-invasive biomarker of infection and tissue inflammation for use in studies of large free-ranging mammals. Royal Society, Volume 7, Issue 2.


Kappeler, P. M., Fichtel, C. (2019). Soziale Ungleichheit. Interdisziplinäre Anthropologie, Pages 3-31.
Jan F. Gogarten, Sébastien Calvignac‐Spencer, Charles L. Nunn, Markus Ulrich, Nasrin Saiepour, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Tobias Deschner, Claudia Fichtel, Peter M. Kappeler, Sascha Knauf, Nadine Müller‐Klein, Julia Ostner, Martha M. Robbins, Somboon Sangmaneedet, Oliver Schülke, Martin Surbeck, Roman M. Wittig, Alexander Sliwa, Christina Strube, Fabian H. Leendertz, Christian Roos, Angela Noll (2019). Metabarcoding of eukaryotic parasite communities describes diverse parasite assemblages spanning the primate phylogeny. Molecular Ecology Resources, Volume 20, Issue 1, 204-215

Charlotte Defolie, Thomas Merkling, Claudia Fichtel (2019). Patterns and variation in the mammal parasite–glucorticoid relationship. Biological Review, Volume 95, Issue 1, 74-93

Rudolph, K., Fichtel, C., Schneider, D., Heistermann, M., Koch, F., Daniel, R., & Kappeler, P. M. (2019). One size fits all? Relationships among group size, health, and ecology indicate a lack of an optimal group size in a wild lemur population. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73(9), 132.

Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner, Andreas Berghänel (2019). Prenatal maternal stress effects on the development of primate social behaviour. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73:128.

Jan F. Gogarten, Ariane Düx, Benjamin Mubemba, Kamilla Pléh, Constanze Hoffmann, Alexander Mielke, Jonathan Müller‐Tiburtius, Andreas Sachse, Roman M. Wittig, Sébastien CalvignacSpencer, Fabian H. Leendertz (2019). Tropical rainforest flies carrying pathogens form stable associations with social non‐human primates. Molecular ecology.

Alan V. Rincon, Julia Ostner, Michael Heistermann, Tobias Deschner (2019). Measuring urinary cortisol and testosterone levels in male Barbary macaques: A comparison of EIA and LC–MS. General and Comparative Endocrinology 281, 117–125.

Verena Behringer, Jeroen M. G. Stevens, Roman M. Wittig, Catherine Crockford, Klaus Zuberbühler, Fabian H. Leendertz, Tobias Deschner (2019). Elevated neopterin levels in wild, healthy chimpanzees indicate constant investment in unspecific immune system. BMC Zoology, 4:2.

Nadine Müller-Klein, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Zina M Morbach, Navina Lilie, Mathias Franz, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner (2019). Physiological and social consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infection in a nonhuman primate. Behavioral Ecology, Volume 30, Issue 2, 322-335.

Nadine Müller-Klein, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Mathias Franz, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner (2019). Exposure and susceptibility drive reinfection with gastrointestinal parasites in a social primate. Functional Ecology, 1-11.



Nicole Paschek, Nadine Müller, Michael Heistermann, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke (2018). Subtypes of aggression and their relation to anxiety in Barbary macaques. Aggressive Behavior. 2019;45:120–128.

Wu, D., Löhrich, T., Sachse, A., Mundry, R., Wittig, R. M., Calvignac‑Spencer, S., Deschner, T., & Leendertz, F. H. (2018). Seasonal and inter‑annual variation of malaria parasite detection in wild chimpanzees. Malaria Journal, 17: 38. 

Gutleb D, Roos C, Noll A, Ostner J & Schülke O (2018) COMT Val158Met moderates the link between rank and aggression in a non-human primate. Genes, Brain and Behavior 17, e12443

Ostner J & Schülke O (2018) Linking sociality to fitness in primates – a call for mechanisms. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 50, 127-175 

Gutleb, D. R., Ostner, J., Schülke, O., Wajjwalku, W., Sukmak, M., Roos, C., & Noll, A. (2018). Non-invasive genotyping with a massively parallel sequencing panel for the detection of SNPs in HPA-axis genes. Scientific Reports, 8, 1–10.

Nadine Müller-Klein, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Zina M. Morbach, Navina Lilie, Mathias Franz, Oliver Schülke & Julia Ostner (2018). Physiological and social consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infection in a nonhuman primate. Behavioral Ecology (2018), XX(XX), 1–14.

Jan F. Gogarten, T. Jonathan Davies, Jacquelynn Benjamino, J. Peter Gogarten, Joerg Graf, Alexander Mielke, Roger Mundry, Michael C. Nelson, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer (2018). Factors influencing bacterial microbiome composition in a wild nonhuman primate community in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. The ISME Journal (2018) 12:2559–2574

Anna Preis, L. Samunia, A. Mielke, T. Deschner, C. Crockford, R.M. Wittig (2018). Urinary oxytocin levels in relation to post-conflict affiliations in wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Hormones and Behavior 105 (2018) 28–40

Therese Löhrich, Verena Behringer, Roman M. Wittig, Tobias DeschnerFabian H. Leendertz (2018). The Use of Neopterin as a Noninvasive Marker in Monitoring Diseases in Wild Chimpanzees. EcoHealth 15, 792–803, 2018

Doris F. Wu, Verena Behringer, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz, Tobias Deschner (2018). Urinary neopterin levels increase and predict survival during a respiratory outbreak in wild chimpanzees (Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire). Scientific Reports (2018) 8:13346

Livia V. Patrono, Liran Samuni, Victor M. Corman, Leila Nourifar, Caroline Röthemeier, Roman M. Wittig, Christian Drosten, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H. Leendertz (2018). Human coronavirus OC43 outbreak in wild chimpanzees, Côte d´Ivoire, 2016. Emerging Microbes & Infections (2018) 7:118 



Behringer V, Stevens JMG, Leendertz FH, Hohmann G, & Deschner T (2017) Validation of a Method for the Assessment of Urinary Neopterin Levels to Monitor Health Status in Non-human-primate Species. Front. Physiol. 8:51.

De Nys, H. M., Löhrich, T., Wu, D., Calvignac-Spencer, S., and Leendertz, F. H. (2017). Wild African great apes as natural hosts of malaria parasites: current knowledge and research perspectives. Primate Biol., 4, 47-59.

Müller, N.; Heistermann, M.; Strube, C.; Schülke, O.; Ostner, J. (2017). Age, but not anthelminthic treatment is assiciated with urinary neopterin levels in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques. Scientific Reports 7: 41973

Springer, A., Fichtel, C., Al-Ghalith, G. A., Koch, F., Amato, K. R., Clayton, J. B., … Kappeler, P. M. (2017). Patterns of seasonality and group membership characterize the gut microbiota in a longitudinal study of wild Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Ecology and Evolution.



Berghänel A, Heistermann M, Schülke O & Ostner J (2016). Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment. Proc. R. Soc. B 283: 20161304.

Springer, A., Mellmann, A., Fichtel, C., & Kappeler, P. M. (2016). Social structure and Escherichia coli sharing in a group-living wild primate, Verreaux’s sifaka. BMC ecology, 16(1), 1.

Springer, A., & Kappeler, P. M. (2016). Intestinal parasite communities of six sympatric lemur species at Kirindy Forest, Madagascar. Primate Biology, (2), 51–63.



Heistermann M & Higham JP (2015). Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, ishighly stable under field conditions. Scientific Reports 5: 16308.

Higham JP, Kraus C, Stahl-Henning C, Engelhardt A, Fuchs D & Heistermann M (2015). Evaluating Noninvasive Markers of Nonhuman Primate Immune Activation and Inflammation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 158: 673-684.

Springer, A., Razafimanantsoa, L., Fichtel, C., & Kappeler, P. M. (2015). Comparison of three short-term immobilization regimes in wild Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi): Ketamine-Xylazine, Ketamine-Xylazine-Atropine, and Tiletamine-Zolazepam. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(3), 482-490.

Springer, A., Fichtel, C., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Leendertz, F. H., & Kappeler, P. M. (2015). Hemoparasites in a wild primate: infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 4(3), 385-395.



Preparatory work


Danish LM, Heistermann M, Agil M & Engelhardt A (2015). Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals. PLoS ONE: DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142051.



Hämäläinen A, Heistermann M, Fenosoa Z & Kraus C (2014). Evaluating capture stress in wild gray mouse lemurs via repeated fecal sampling: method validations and the influence of prior experience and handling protocols on stress responses. General and Comparative Endocrinology 195: 68-79.

Müller N, Ostner J, Schülke O & Walter L (2014). Towards the non-invasive assessment of MHC genotype in wild primates – analysis of wild Assamese macaque MHC-DRB from fecal samples. American Journal of Primatology 76: 230-238.

Nunn CL, Skully EJ, Kutsukake N, Ostner J, Schülke O & Thrall PH (2014). Mating competition, promiscuity, and life history traits as predictors of sexually transmitted disease risk in primates. International Journal of Primatology 35: 764-786.

Nunn CL, Thrall P & Kappeler PM. (2014). Shared resources and disease dynamics in socially structured populations. Ecological Modeling 272: 198-207.

Schülke O, Heistermann H & Ostner J (2014). Lack of evidence for energetic costs of mate-guarding in wild male Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). International Journal of Primatology : DOI 10.1007/s10764-013-9748-y.

Young C, Schülke O & Ostner J (2014). How males form coalitions against group rivals and the Pandit/van Schaik coalition model. Behaviour 151: 907-934.

Young, C.; Majolo, B.; Heistermann, M.; Schülke, O.; Ostner, J. (2014). Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111: 18195-18200.



Heesen M, Rogahn S, Ostner J & Schülke O (2013). Food abundance affects energy intake and reproduction in frugivorous female Assamese macaques. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 1052-1066.

Macdonald S, Schülke O & Ostner J (2013). The absence of grooming for rank-related benefits in female Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). International Journal of Primatology 34: 571-584.

Schaumburg F, Mugisha L, Kappeler P, Fichtel C, Kock R, Kondgen S, Becker K, Boesch C, Peters G & Leendertz F. (2013). Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor colonization in Great Apes and lemurs. PloS One 8:e78046.

Calvignac-Spencer S, Merkel K, Kutzner N, Kuhl H, Boesch C, Kappeler PM, Metzger S, Schubert G & Leendertz FH (2013). Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity. Molecular Ecology 22: 915-924.




Fürtbauer I, Heistermann M, Schülke O & Ostner J (2012). Fecal androgen excretion and fetal sex effects during gestation in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147: 334-339.

Harper KN, Fyumagwa RD, Hoare R, Wambura PN, Coppenhaver DH, Sapolsky RM, Alberts SC, Tung J, Rogers J, Kilewo M, Batamuzi EK, Leendertz FH, Armelagos GJ & Knauf S (2012). Treponemapallidum infection in the wild baboons of East Africa: distribution and genetic characterization of the strains responsible. PLoS One 7: e50882.

Hilgartner R, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM & Zinner D (2012). Determinants of pair-living in red-tailed sportive lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus). Ethology 118: 466-479.

Kappeler PM & Fichtel C (2012a). Female reproductive competition in Eulemur rufifrons: eviction and reproductive restraint in a plurally breeding Malagasy primate. Molecular Ecology 21: 685-698.

Kappeler PM & Fichtel C (2012b). A 15-year perspective on the social organization and life history of sifakas in Kirindy Forest. pp. 101-121 in: Kappeler PM & Watts DP (eds) Long-Term Field Studies of Primates. Springer, Heidelberg.

Knauf S, Batamuzi EK, Mlengeya T, Kilewo M, Lejora IA, Nordhoff M, Ehlers B, Harper KN, Fyumagwa R, Hoare R, Failing K, Wehrend A, Kaup FJ, Leendertz FH & Matz-Rensing K. (2012). Treponema infection associated with genital ulceration in wild baboons. Veterinary Pathology 49: 292-303.

Schülke O & Ostner J (2012). Ecological and social influences on sociality. In: Mitani, J, Call J, Kappeler P, Palombit R & Silk J (eds.) The Evolution of Primate Societies, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.



Berghänel A, Ostner J, Schröder U & Schülke O (2011). Social bonds predict future cooperation in male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Animal Behaviour 81: 1109-1116.

Girard-Buttoz C, Higham JP, Heistermann M, Wedegärtner S, Maestripieri D & Engelhardt A (2011). A non-invasive method for the assessment of energetic condition in monkeys. PLoS One 6(3): e18042.

Higham J, Girard-Buttoz C, Engelhardt A & Heistermann M (2011). Urinary C-peptide of insulin as a non-invasive marker of nutritional status: some practicalities. PLoS One 6(7): e22398.

Ostner J, Heistermann M & Schülke, O (2011). Male competition and its hormonal correlates in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). Hormones and Behavior 59: 105-113.

Wevers D, Metzger S, Babweteera F, Bieberbach M, Boesch C, Cameron K, Couacy-Hymann E, Cranfield M, Gray M, Harris LA, Head J, Jeffery K, Knauf S, Lankester F, Leendertz SA, Lonsdorf E, Mugisha L, Nitsche A, Reed P, Robbins M, Travis DA, Zommers Z, Leendertz FH & Ehlers B. (2011). Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: a high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions. Journal of Virology 85: 10774-10784.



Clough D, Heistermann M & Kappeler PM (2010). Host intrinsic determinants and potential consequences of parasite infection in free-ranging red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 441-452.

Fürtbauer I, Schülke O, Heistermann M & Ostner J (2010). Reproductive and life-history parameters of wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). International Journal of Primatology 31: 501-517.

Leendertz SA, Metzger S, Skjerve E, Deschner T, Boesch C, Riedel J & Leendertz F (2010). A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick paramenters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d´Ivoire. American Journal Primatology 71: 1-10.

Schülke O, Bhagavatula J, Vigilant L & Ostner J (2010). Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques. Current Biology 20: 2207-2210.



Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Krummel S & Engelhardt A (2009). Seasonal and social influences on fecal androgen and glucocorticoid excretion in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Physiology & Behavior 98: 168-175.

Mass V, Heistermann M & Kappeler PM (2009). Mate guarding as a reproductive tactic in sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). International Journal of Primatology 30: 389-409.